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    文章

    (中英对照)知识产权侵权的共同责任


    2018/12/24|文章

    编者按:


    国际保护知识产权协会(AIPPI)成立于1897年,是联合国世界知识产权组织(WIPO)最主要的非政府性知识产权咨询机构。成立至今,AIPPI就各类知识产权问题做出700多份决议和报告,并呈递给各国政府、立法机关和联合国,为国际知识产权保护的协调、发展和完善做出了巨大贡献。


    经济全球化的背景下,侵权行为的行为实施地和损害结果发生地分处不同国家(法域)的情况非常普遍。因此,对知识产权侵权的共同责任的研究非常重要也十分紧迫。


    AIPPI将“Joint Liability for IP Infringement(知识产权侵权的共同责任)”作为2018年度大会的一项议题。来自各国家和地区的AIPPI分会以及独立会员提供了与议题相关的43份报告,作为AIPPI对于此项议题的研究基础和重要参考。其中,永新知识产权代表AIPPI中国分会提供了与议题相关的中国法律的详细信息和专业分析报告。


    2018 AIPPI坎昆大会上通过了议题“Joint Liability for IP Infringement(知识产权侵权的共同责任)”的决议。以下为决议全文(中文部分由永新知识产权翻译):


    2018 AIPPI World Congress - Cancún

    Adopted Resolution

    September 26, 2018

    2018国际保护知识产权协会(AIPPI)世界知识产权大会---坎昆

    通过决议

    2018926

     

      

     Resolution

    决议

     

     2018 – Study Question (General)

    2018---研究问题(一般性问题)

     

     Joint liability for IPR infringement

    知识产权侵权的共同责任

     

    Background:

    背景:

     

    1) This Resolution concerns Joint Liability for infringement of patents, trademarks, designs and copyright.

    1)该决议是关于专利、商标、工业外观设计和版权侵权的共同责任问题。

     

    2) In some cases, it is difficult, impractical or impossible for a single party to infringe intellectual property rights (IPRs) in protected subject matter. Alternatively, a party may not itself be infringing an IPR, but may contract with or employ or instruct others to perform some or all of the acts constituting infringement, thereby escaping liability for direct or indirect IPR infringement. It may therefore only be possible to find infringement by combining the actions of more than one party. This is commonly referred to as "Joint Infringement".

    2)在一些情形下,由单一主体对受保护客体实施知识产权(IPR)侵权行为是困难、不切实际或者不可能的。或者,某一主体虽然自己没有侵犯知识产权,但却约定、雇佣或指示其他主体实施部分或全部侵权行为,以此来逃避承担直接或间接知识产权侵权责任。在以上情况下,只能通过合并多个主体的行为来认定侵权。这通常被称之为“共同侵权”。


    3) For the purpose of this Resolution:

    3)为本决议之目的:


    a reference to Joint InfringementJoint Liability or Joint Liability for IPR infringement means the defendant is jointly liable withone or more other parties, notwithstanding the defendant itself may not beliable for any act of direct Infringement, Indirect Infringement or Contributory Infringement under existing laws, and the term Jointly Liable should be understood accordingly;

    共同侵权、共同责任知识产权侵权的共同责任指的是被告与一个或多个其他主体承担共同责任,尽管遵照任何现有法律规定,该被告自身可能对直接侵权、间接侵权或帮助侵权并不单独承担任何法律责任。“承担共同责任的”也应该这样理解;


    Indirect Infringement means any infringement that is not direct infringement (but not including a Joint Infringement as such).

    间接侵权指代任何非直接侵权的侵权行为(但不包括共同侵权);

     

    Contributory Infringement is defined as a species of Indirect Infringement, as follows:

        ...[comprising] only the form of indirect infringement consisting in the offering or supply of means suitable for committing an act that is a direct infringement of an IPR; "contributory infringement" shall not include other acts known as indirect infringements, such as inducement or the provision of or other assistance than the offering or supply of means for committing adirect infringement.[1]

    帮助侵权被定义为间接侵权的一种,具体如下:

    仅仅包含为知识产权直接侵权行为提供或给予适合其实施侵权的手段或方法的一种间接侵权形式;“帮助侵权”并不包括其它间接侵权行为,比如引诱、提供或者除了为直接侵权提供或给予手段的其它帮助形式。[1]


    4) This Resolution proposes harmonized rules for situations where acts of a party do not qualify as direct infringement or Contributory Infringement, but the party may nonetheless beheld liable for such acts because those acts effectively endanger an IPR, if combined with the acts of others.

    4)本决议旨在针对以下情形提出统一的规则:尽管某一主体的行为并未满足直接侵权或帮助侵权的条件,其行为如果同其他当事人的行为结合已经对知识产权构成了危害,该主体有可能需要就其行为负法律责任。


    5) 43 Reports were received from AIPPI's National and Regional Groups and Independent Members providing detailed information and analysis regarding national and regional laws relating to this Resolution. These Reports were reviewed by the Reporter General Team of AIPPI and distilled into a Summary Report (see links below).

    5AIPPI共收到来自各国家和地区分会以及独立会员的43份报告,就与本决议相关的国家和地区的法律提供了详细信息和分析。AIPPI的总报告人团队审阅了这些报告,提炼信息,制作了一份总结报告(详见链接)。


    6) At the AIPPI World Congress in Cancun in September 2018, the subject matter of this Resolution was further discussed within a dedicated Study Committee, and again in a full Plenary Session, following which the present Resolution was adopted by the Executive Committee of AIPPI.

    620189月在AIPPI组织的坎昆大会上,专项研究委员会进一步讨论了本决议所针对之主题,并再次举行全体会议讨论,最终AIPPI执行委员会通过了此项决议。


    AIPPI resolves that:

    AIPPI决议如下:


    1) A party who assists in or otherwise facilitates an IPR infringement taking place in a particular jurisdiction, should be held liable for Joint Infringement arising in that jurisdiction in case where:

    1)若某一主体帮助或便利了在特定法域发生的知识产权侵权,其应对该法域内发生的共同侵权承担法律责任,具体包括以下情形:


    the party has actively participated in or in a substantial manner facilitated the IPR infringement and 

    ﹒该主体已积极地参与了知识产权侵权或在实质上为知识产权侵权提供了便利,并且


    the party knows of, or should have known of, said IPR infringement; including when the said party did not take reasonable steps to avoid participating in or in a substantial manner facilitating the IPR infringement after being notified of the infringing activity.

    ﹒该主体知道或应当已经知道上述知识产权侵权行为;包括该主体在已被通知发生侵权行为后,没有采取合理措施以避免参与或者在实质上为该知识产权侵权提供便利。


    2) If no IPR infringement can be established by the acts of a single person, but the IPR infringement only arises by the collective acts of two or more parties, any such party meeting the conditions of paragraph (1) should be considered Jointly Liable.

    2)如果单个人的行为不能构成知识产权侵权,但是两个或多个主体的集体行为导致知识产权侵权,任何符合段落(1)所述情形的主体,都应当被认定为承担共同责任。


    3) Where only some of the activities that would constitute Joint Infringement by two or more parties occur within a given jurisdiction, the courts in the jurisdiction should be allowed to consider the activities of any of the parties which have taken place in another jurisdiction, subject to a sufficient objective connection with the jurisdiction.

    3)若两个或多个主体的共同侵权行为中只有部分发生在某一法域,该法域内的法院应当被允许去考虑发生在另一法域的任何一方的行为,前提是这些行为与该法域有着充分的客观联系。


    4) The available remedies against acts constituting Joint Infringement should not differ from the remedies available in case of direct infringement and Indirect Infringement. The following remedies should inter alia be available in the ruling jurisdiction against acts constituting Joint Infringement: preliminary injunctions, permanent injunctions, and damages (and other forms of monetary compensation).

    4)针对构成共同侵权行为的可用救济措施不应当与直接侵权和间接侵权的可用救济措施有不同。在管辖法域内,下述针对构成共同侵权的行为的救济措施尤其应当被适用:临时禁令、永久禁令和损害赔偿(以及其他形式的金钱赔偿)。


    5) All the parties liable under Joint Liability should be jointly and severally liable in damages. Claims for contribution between those parties may reflect the extent of each party’s role.

    5)承担共同法律责任的所有主体应当就损害赔偿承担共同连带责任。这些主体的赔偿比例可反映出各个主体的责任大小。




    参考文献

    【1】决议Q204-“知识产权帮助侵权的法律责任”(波士顿,2008)。


    链接Links:

    研究指引 Study Guidelines

    http://aippi.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Joint-liability-for-IP-infringement-Study-Guidelines-12Feb2018.pdf

    研究报告 Summary Report

    http://aippi.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Summary_Report_Joint-liability-of-IP-infringement_10August2018.pdf

    各国家和地区分会以及独立会员的报告 Reports of National and Regional Groups and Independent Members

    http://aippi.org/committee-publications/?committee-id=54296



    永新AIPPI课题组成员:苗征 李倩 卢佳 寇飞 于伟艳 张超 钟鸣 林晓红 邵伟

    决议翻译:曹丹

    校       对:苗征 李俏

    审       稿:林晓红


    中文翻译由永新知识产权提供,未经授权请勿转载。